Southern Polytechnic State University
Information Technology Department
IT 4323 Data Communications and Networks

Course Syllabus

Catalog Description
Prerequisite: IT 3124 Hardware/Software Concepts
Fundamental concepts of computer networking. Topics include properties of signals and media, information encoding, error detection and recovery, LANs, backbones, WANs, network topologies, routing, Internet protocols, and security issues. The focus is on general concepts together with their application to support the business enterprise.

Course Objectives
To provide students with an understanding of modern physical communications hardware, networking protocols and security issues.  Students should understand various network architectures and topologies as well as be familiar with the configuration, use, and management of network hardware and software.

Learning Outcomes
Students who complete this course successfully will be able to:

§         Describe the fundamentals of communications systems.

§         Explain the operation of different data communications protocols and their roles within layered network architectures.

§         Describe the advantages and disadvantages of different network topologies and technologies.

Required Textbook
Data Communications and Networking, 4th edition, by B.A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill, 2007 ISBN 0073250325

References
Business Data Networks and Telecommunications, 6th edition, by R.R. Panko, Prentice-Hall, 2007 (ISBN 0-13-221441-5).

Computer Networking, 3rd edition, by J.F. Kurose and K.W. Ross, Addison-Wesley, 2005 (ISBN 0-321-22735-2).

Course Content Outline / Major Topics:

1.       Chapter 1 Introduction 1

1.1.     Introduction 2

1.1.1.           Applications 2

1.1.2.           Networks at the Bank 3

1.1.3.           Internets 9

1.2.     Technical Network Concerns 16

1.2.1.           Network Architecture 16

1.2.2.           Standards 19

1.2.3.           Security 20

1.2.4.           Wireless Networking 22

1.2.5.           Efficiency 23

1.2.6.           Quality of Service (QoS) 23

1.3.     Pat Lee’s Home LAN 25

1.3.1.           Microcosm 25

1.3.2.           Pat Lee’s Home Network 26

1.3.3.           Applications 26

1.3.4.           The Personal Computers 27

1.3.5.           Pat’s Cable Modem 28

1.3.6.           Wires, Connectors, and Jacks 28

1.3.7.           The Access Router 30

1.3.8.           Dealing with Host Names 35

1.3.9.           Dedicated Servers 36

2.        Chapter 1a Windows XP Home Networking 43

2.1.     Introduction 44

2.2.     Setting Up an Internet Connection 44

2.2.1.           Initial Steps 44

2.2.2.           Next Steps 46

2.3.     Allowing Peer-to-Peer Directory and File Sharing 47

2.3.1.           Network Setup Wizard: Welcome to the Network Setup Wizard 47

2.3.2.           Network Setup Wizard: Before You Continue 49

2.3.3.           Network Setup Wizard: Select a Connection Method 49

2.3.4.           Network Setup Wizard: Your Computer Has Multiple Connections 49

2.3.5.           Network Setup Wizard: Give This Computer a Description and Name 49

2.3.6.           New Connection Wizard: Name Your Network 51

2.3.7.           Network Setup Wizard: Ready to Apply Network Settings 51

2.3.8.           Network Setup Wizard: Finish 52

2.4.     Accessing Shared Files 52

2.4.1.           Process 52

2.4.2.           Shared Documents (SharedDocs) 53

2.4.3.           Weak Security in Simple File Sharing 53

2.5.     Sharing Additional Directories 54

2.5.1.           Run the Network Setup Wizard 54

2.5.2.           Select Another Directory You Wish to Share 54

2.5.3.           In the Directory’s Properties Dialog Box 55

2.5.4.           Still No Security 55

2.6.     Sharing Printers 56

2.6.1.           Making a Printer Available for Sharing 56

2.6.2.           Using a Shared Printer 58

3.        Chapter 1b Design Exercise: XTR Consulting: A SOHO Network with Dedicated Servers 61

3.1.     Introduction 62

3.2.     Dedicated Servers 63

3.2.1.           Peer-to-Peer Networks 63

3.2.2.           Server Technology 64

3.2.3.           Network Operating Systems (NOSs) for PC Servers 66

3.2.4.           Systems Administration for Servers 70

3.2.4.1.      Managing Access Permissions 70

3.3.     XTR: The Initial Situation 75

3.3.1.           PCs 75

3.3.2.           Printers 75

3.3.3.           Sneakernet 75

3.3.4.           Remote Access 75

3.3.5.           Internet Access 76

3.3.6.           Maintenance 76

3.4.     Broad Network Design 76

3.4.1.           Labor Costs 76

3.4.2.           Switch 76

3.4.3.           Wires 76

3.4.4.           Network Interface Card (NIC) 76

3.4.5.           Dedicated Servers 77

3.4.6.           Dedicated Print Servers 78

3.4.7.           Internet Access 79

3.4.8.           Firewall 80

3.4.9.           E-Mail 80

3.4.10.        Remote Access Service (RAS) 81

3.5.     Your Detailed Design 81

4.       Chapter 2 Layered Standards Architectures 83

4.1.     Introduction 84

4.2.     How Standards Govern Interactions 84

4.2.1.           Message Semantics (Meaning) 84

4.2.2.           Message Syntax 84

4.2.3.           Message Timing 88

4.2.4.           Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Protocols 88

4.2.5.           Reliability 89

4.2.6.           The TCP/IP–OSI Architecture 91

4.2.7.           Why a Layered Architecture? 96

4.3.     Layers 1 (Physical) and 2 (Data Link) in Ethernet 97

4.3.1.           Ethernet Physical Layer Standards 98

4.3.2.           Ethernet Frames 98

4.3.3.           Ethernet Characteristics 100

4.4.     Layer 3: The Internet Protocol (IP) 101

4.4.1.           Layer 2 Versus Layer 3 101

4.4.2.           The IP Packet 101

4.4.3.           IP Characteristics 103

4.5.     Layer 4: The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) 103

4.5.1.           Layers 3 and 4 104

4.5.2.           TCP: A Reliable Protocol 104

4.6.     Layer 5: HTTP and Other Application Standards 105

4.7.     Vertical Communication on Hosts, Switches, and Routers 105

4.7.1.           Layered Communication on the Source Host 105

4.7.2.           Vertical Layered Communication in End-to-End Transmission 107

4.7.3.           Standards and Protocols 109

4.8.     Standards Architectures 110

4.8.1.           TCP/IP and OSI Architectures 110

4.8.2.           TCP/IP 114

4.8.3.           TCP/IP and OSI 116

4.8.4.           A Multiprotocol World at Higher Layers 116

4.8.5.           Standards at the First Bank of Paradise 117

5.        Chapter 2a Hands On: The TCP/IP Play 121

5.1.     Introduction 122

5.2.     The Cast of Characters 122

5.2.1.           Application Layer 122

5.2.2.           Transport Layer 123

5.2.3.           Internet Layer 123

5.2.4.           Data Link Layer and Physical Layer 123

5.2.5.         Messages 123

5.2.6.           Application Messages 123

5.2.7.           TCP Segments 123

5.2.8.           IP Packets 124

5.3.     Enacting the Play 125

5.3.1.           Basic Action 125

5.3.2.           To Begin 125

5.3.3.           Deliverables 125

6.       Chapter 3 Physical Layer Propagation 127

6.1.     Introduction 128

6.1.1.           The Physical Layer 128

6.2.     Signaling 128

6.2.1.           Disturbances and Propagation 128

6.2.2.           Binary Data 129

6.2.3.           Signaling 131

6.3.     Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Wiring 135

6.3.1.           UTP Transmission Standards 135

6.3.2.           4-Pair UTP and RJ-45 135

6.3.3.           Attenuation and Noise Problems 137

6.3.4.           Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) in UTP Wiring 140

6.3.5.           Serial and Parallel Transmission 142

6.3.6.           Ethernet Standards Using UTP 143

6.4.     Optical Fiber Transmission Links 144

6.4.1.           Optical Fiber Construction 144

6.4.2.           Wavelengths, Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM), and Attenuation 147

6.4.3.           Wavelengths and Attenuation 149

6.4.4.           Modes and Optical Fiber 151

6.4.5.           Key Points about Fiber 154

6.5.     Network Topologies 154

6.5.1.           Point-to-Point Topology 155

6.5.2.           Star Topology and Extended Star (Hierarchy) Topology 156

6.5.3.           Mesh Topology 156

6.5.4.           Ring Topology 156

6.5.5.           Bus Topologies 156

6.6.     Wiring the First Bank of Paradise Headquarters Building 156

6.6.1.           Facilities 156

6.6.2.           Telephone Wiring 158

6.6.3.           Data Wiring 158

6.6.4.           Plenum Cabling 159

7.        Chapter 3a Hands On: Cutting and Connectorizing UTP 163

7.1.     Introduction 163

7.2.     Solid and Stranded Wiring 163

7.2.1.           Solid-Wire UTP Versus Stranded-Wire UTP 163

7.2.2.           Relative Advantages 163

7.2.3.           Adding Connectors 164

7.3.     Cutting the Cord 164

7.4.     Stripping the Cord 164

7.5.     Working with the Exposed Pairs 165

7.5.1.           Pair Colors 165

7.5.2.           Untwisting the Pairs 165

7.5.3.           Ordering the Pairs 165

7.5.4.           Cutting the Wires 166

7.6.     Adding the Connector 167

7.6.1.           Holding the Connector 167

7.6.2.           Sliding in the Wires 167

7.6.3.           Some Jacket inside the Connector 167

7.7.     Crimping 167

7.7.1.           Pressing Down 167

7.7.2.           Making Electrical Contact 167

7.7.3.           Strain Relief 167

7.8.     Testing 168

7.8.1.           Testing with Continuity Testers 168

7.8.2.           Testing for Signal Quality 168

8.       Chapter 4 Ethernet LANs 171

8.1.     Introduction 172

8.1.1.           Dominance in the LAN Market 172

8.1.2.           Ethernet Standards Development 172

8.1.3.           Major Ethernet Physical Layer Standards 172

8.1.4.           TIA/EIA-568 and IEEE 802.3 176

8.1.5.           Link Aggregation (Trunking) 177

8.1.6.           Ethernet Physical Layer Standards and Network Design 178

8.2.     The Ethernet Frame 179

8.2.1.           Layering 179

8.2.2.           The Ethernet Frame 180

8.3.     Basic Data Link Layer Switch Operation 183

8.3.1.           Frame Forwarding with Multiple Ethernet Switches 183

8.3.2.           Hubs 185

8.3.3.           Hierarchical Switch Topology 186

8.3.4.           Only One Possible Path: Low Switching Cost 188

8.4.     Advanced Switch Operation 188

8.4.1.           802.1D: The Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) 188

8.4.2.           Virtual LANs and Ethernet Switches 191

8.4.3.           Handling Momentary Traffic Peaks 194

8.5.     Purchasing Switches 196

8.5.1.           Number and Speeds of Ports 197

8.5.2.           Switching Matrix Throughput 197

8.5.3.           Store-and-Forward Versus Cut-through Switching 198

8.5.4.           Jitter 199

8.5.5.           Manageability 200

8.5.6.           Physical and Electrical Features 201

9.        Chapter 4a Case Study: Rewiring a College Building 209

9.1.     Introduction 210

9.2.     Option 1: State-of-the-Art Rewiring 213

9.3.     Option 2: Using the Existing UTP Data Wiring 214

9.4.     Option 3: Resegmentation 214

10.    Chapter 5 Wireless LANs 217

10.1. Introduction 218

10.2. Radio Signal Propagation 220

10.2.1.        Radio Signals and Antennas 220

10.2.2.        Wireless Propagation Problems 223

10.2.3.        Bands and Bandwidth 224

10.2.4.        Normal and Spread Spectrum Transmission 228

10.3. 802.11 WLAN Standards 231

10.3.1.        802.11 231

10.3.2.        Typical Operation 231

10.4. Controlling 802.11 Transmission 233

10.4.1.        CSMA/CA+ACK Media Access Control 233

10.4.2.        Request to Send/Clear to Send (RTS/CTS) 235

10.4.3.        802.11 Wireless LAN Standards 236

10.5. 802.11 Security 239

10.5.1.        No Security by Default 239

10.5.2.        Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP): Shared Static Keys 239

10.5.3.        802.11i Security 241

10.5.4.        WPA (Wireless Protected Access) 242

10.5.5.        Transition to Strong Security 242

10.5.6.        Rogue Access Points 243

10.6. Bluetooth Personal Area Networks (PANs) 243

10.6.1.        Personal Area Network for Cable Replacement 243

10.6.2.        Application Profiles 244

10.6.3.        Long Battery Life 244

10.6.4.        Low Speed and Limited Distance 244

10.6.5.        Interference with 802.11 Networks 244

10.7. Emerging Wireless Technologies 245

10.7.1.        Wireless LAN Management 245

10.7.2.        Radio Frequency IDs (RFIDs) 247

10.7.3.        Ultrawideband (UWB) 247

10.7.4.        Fourth-Generation (4G) Stations 247

11.    Chapter 6 The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) 251

11.1. Introduction 252

11.1.1.        The Importance of Telephony 252

11.1.2.        The Four Elements of the PSTN 252

11.1.3.        Circuit Switching 254

11.2. The Access System 257

11.2.1.        The Local Loop 257

11.2.2.        The End Office Switch 258

11.2.3.        Analog-to-Digital Conversion for Analog Local Loops 259

11.2.4.        Private Lines 264

11.3. The PSTN Transport Core and Signaling 264

11.3.1.        The Transport Core 264

11.3.2.        Signaling 266

11.4. Cellular Telephony 266

11.4.1.        Cells 266

11.4.2.        Why Cells? 268

12.    Cellular Telephone Generations 269

12.1.1.        Generation Characteristics 269

12.1.2.        Standards Families 270

12.1.3.        Perspectives on 3G Service 273

12.2. IP Telephony 273

12.2.1.        Basic Operation 273

12.2.2.        Speech Codecs 274

12.2.3.        Transport 275

12.2.4.        Signaling in IP Telephony 276

12.2.5.        Concerns for IP Telephony 277

12.2.6.        Enter the Carriers 277

12.3. Telephone Carriers 278

12.3.1.        PTTs and AT&T 278

12.3.2.        Deregulation 279

13.    Chapter 7 Wide Area Networks (WANs) 285

13.1. Introduction 286

13.1.1.        WANs and the Telephone Network 286

13.1.2.        Reasons to Build a WAN 286

13.1.3.        WAN Technologies 287

13.1.4.        High Costs and Low Speeds 287

13.1.5.        Carriers 287

13.2. Individual Internet Access 287

13.2.1.        Telephone Modem Communication 287

13.2.2.        Digital Subscriber Lines (DSLs) 289

13.2.3.        Cable Modem Service 292

13.2.4.        Wireless Access Systems 293

13.3. Point-to-Point Private Line Networks 295

13.3.1.        Private Line Networks for Voice and Data 295

13.3.2.        Private Line Network Topologies 295

13.3.3.        Private Line Speeds 298

13.4. Public Switched Data Networks (PSDNs) 300

13.4.1.        Private Lines in Private Line Data Networks 300

13.4.2.        Public Switched Data Network (PSDN) Access Lines 301

13.4.3.        The PSDN Cloud 301

13.4.4.        Service Level Agreements (SLAs) 302

13.4.5.        The Market Situation 302

13.4.6.        Virtual Circuit Operation 302

13.5. Frame Relay 303

13.5.1.        The Most Popular PSDN 303

13.5.2.        Components 303

13.5.3.        Designing a Company’s Frame Relay Network 306

13.6. Asynchronous Transfer Mode 308

13.6.1.        Not a Competitor for Frame Relay 308

13.6.2.        Designed for SONET/SDH 308

13.6.3.        Cell Switching 308

13.6.4.        ATM Quality-of-Service Guarantees 309

13.6.5.        Manageability, Complexity, and Cost 309

13.6.6.        Market Strengths 310

13.7. Metropolitan Area Ethernet 310

13.7.1.        Metropolitan Area Networking 310

13.7.2.        E-Line and E-LAN 310

13.7.3.        Attractions of Metropolitan Area Ethernet 310

13.7.4.        Carrier Class Service 311

13.8. Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) 311

13.8.1.        The Attractiveness of Internet Transmission 311

13.8.2.        Types of VPNs 312

13.8.3.        VPN Standards 312

14.     Chapter 7a Case Study: First Bank of Paradise’s Wide Area Networks 319

14.1. Introduction 319

14.2. Organizational Units 319

14.3. The FBP Wide Area Network (WAN) 321

14.4. Anticipated Changes 321

15.    Chapter 8 TCP/IP Internetworking 323

15.1. Introduction 324

15.2. TCP/IP Recap 324

15.2.1.        The TCP/IP Architecture and the IETF 324

15.2.2.        IP at the Internet Layer 325

15.2.3.        Reliable Heavyweight TCP at the Transport Layer 325

15.2.4.        Unreliable Lightweight UDP at the Transport Layer 325

15.3. IP Routing 326

15.3.1.        Hierarchical IP Addressing 326

15.3.2.        A Small Internet 328

15.3.3.        Router Forwarding 330

15.3.4.        Multiprotocol Routing 331

15.4. Box: IP Routing Tables 332

15.4.1.        Switching Versus Routing Tables 332

15.4.2.        Routing Tables 332

15.4.3.        Router Operation 335

15.4.4.        Finding Row Matches 336

15.4.5.        Finding the Best Match 337

15.4.6.        After the Best-Match Row Is Selected 339

15.4.7.        Recap on Routing Decisions 341

15.5. Standards Related to IP 341

15.5.1.        Routing Protocols 342

15.5.2.        Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) 342

15.5.3.        Domain Name System (DNS) 344

15.5.4.        Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) for Supervisory Messages 346

15.5.5.        IPv4 Fields 347

15.5.6.        IPv6 Fields 349

15.6. The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) 350

15.6.1.        Sequence Numbers 350

15.6.2.        Flags Fields 350

15.6.3.        Port Numbers 352

15.7. The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) 354

15.8. Layer 3 and Layer 4 Switches 354

15.8.1.        Layer 3 Switches 354

15.8.2.        Layer 4 Switches 356

16.     Chapter 8a Hands On: Packet Capture and Analysis with WinDUMP and TCPDUMP 361

16.1. What are WinDUMP and TCPDUMP? 362

16.2. Working with WinDUMP 363

16.2.1.        Installing WinDUMP 363

16.2.2.        Running WinDUMP 363

16.2.3.        Getting Data to Capture 363

16.3. Reading WinDUMP Output 363

16.3.1.        Opening the TCP Connection 363

16.3.2.        The HTTP Request Message 365

16.3.3.        The HTTP Response Message 365

16.3.4.        Ending the Connection 366

16.4. Some Popular WinDUMP Options 366

16.4.1.        Major Options 366

16.4.2.        Example 366

16.4.3.        Expression 367

16.5. Hexadecimal Printout 367

16.5.1.        ASCII versus Hex 367

16.5.2.        Hex Output 367

17.    Chapter 9 Security 371

17.1. Security Threats 372

17.1.1.        Dangers 372

17.1.2.        Viruses and Worms 373

17.1.3.        Human Break-Ins (Hacking) 375

17.1.4.        Denial-of-Service (DoS) Attacks 378

17.1.5.        Attackers 378

17.2. Planning 379

17.2.1.        Security Is a Management Issue 379

17.2.2.        The Plan–Protect–Response Cycle 379

17.2.3.        Planning Principles 381

17.3. Protection with Access Control 381

17.3.1.        Authentication 382

17.3.2.        Passwords 382

17.3.3.        Digital Certificate Authentication 384

17.3.4.        Biometrics 386

17.4. Protection with Firewalls 387

17.4.1.        Basic Operation 387

17.4.2.        Packet Filter Firewalls 387

17.4.3.        Stateful Firewalls 388

17.4.4.        Application Firewalls 390

17.4.5.        Defense in Depth 392

17.4.6.        Other Protections 392

17.5. Protection with Cryptographic Systems 394

17.5.1.        Cryptographic Systems 394

17.5.2.        Negotiation and Authentication 395

17.5.3.        Key Exchange 395

17.5.4.        Ongoing Communication 397

17.6. Other Aspects of Protection 397

17.6.1.        Hardening Hosts 397

17.6.2.        Vulnerability Testing 399

17.7. Response 399

17.7.1.        Detecting the Attack 399

17.7.2.        Stopping the Attack 399

17.7.3.        Repairing the Damage 399

17.7.4.        Punishing the Attacker 400

17.7.5.        Major Attacks and CSIRTs 401

17.7.6.        Disasters 401

18.     Chapter 9a Hands On: Windows XP Home Security 405

18.1. Introduction 406

18.1.1.        The Big Two 406

18.1.2.        Other Security Measures 406

18.2. Windows Updates 406

18.2.1.        Security Vulnerabilities and Updates (Patches) 406

18.2.2.        Turning on and Configuring Automatic Updates 407

18.2.3.        Automatic Updating and Problem Updates 408

18.2.4.        Work-Arounds 409

18.2.5.        Service Packs and Severity Ratings 409

18.2.6.        Updating Applications 409

18.3. Antivirus Scanning 409

18.3.1.        Updates 410

18.3.2.        Configuration and Breadth of Protection 410

18.3.3.        User Subversion and Failing to Pay for Subscriptions 411

18.4. Other Common Security Measures 411

18.4.1.        Internet Explorer Security and Privacy Options 411

18.4.2.        Internet Connection Firewall (Stateful) 412

18.4.3.        Packet Filter Firewall (TCP/IP Filtering) 416

18.4.4.        Malware-Scanning Programs 419

18.4.5.        Establishing Virtual Private Networks 420

18.5. Windows XP Professional 423

18.6. Windows XP Service Pack 2(SP2) 424

19.    Chapter 10 Network Management 427

19.1. Network Management 428

19.2. Cost Analysis 428

19.2.1.        Demand Versus Budget 428

19.2.2.        Labor Costs 428

19.2.3.        Carrier Fees 429

19.2.4.        Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) 430

19.3. Network Simulation 431

19.3.1.        Network Simulation Purposes 432

19.3.2.        Before the Simulation: Collecting Data 433

19.3.3.        The Process 433

19.4. IP Management 437

19.4.1.        IP Subnet Planning 437

19.4.2.        Administrative IP Servers 439

19.4.3.        Device Configuration 441

19.5. Network Management Utilities 443

19.5.1.        Security Concerns 443

19.5.2.        Host Diagnostic Tools 443

19.5.3.        Route Analysis Tools 447

19.5.4.        Network Mapping Tools 448

19.5.5.        Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) 449

19.5.6.        Remote Switch and Router Management 453

19.6. Traffic Management Methods 455

19.6.1.        Momentary Traffic Peaks 455

19.6.2.        Traffic Shaping 457

20.    Chapter 11 Networked Applications 463

20.1. Introduction 464

20.1.1.        Networked Applications 464

20.2. Traditional Application Architectures 464

20.2.1.        Hosts with Dumb Terminals 464

20.2.2.        Client/Server Systems 465

20.3. Electronic Mail (E-Mail) 468

20.3.1.        E-Mail Standards 468

20.3.2.        Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) 470

20.3.3.        Receiving Mail (POP and IMAP) 470

20.3.4.        Web-Enabled E-Mail 471

20.3.5.        Viruses and Trojan Horses 472

20.3.6.        Spam 473

20.4. The World Wide Web and E-Commerce 473

20.4.1.        The World Wide Web 474

20.4.2.        Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce) 477

20.4.3.        Links to Other Systems 478

20.4.4.        Application Servers 478

20.4.5.        E-Commerce Security 480

20.5. Web Services 481

20.5.1.        Basic Web Service 481

20.5.2.        Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI) Protocol 484

20.6. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Application Architectures 485

20.6.1.        Traditional Client/Server Applications 485

20.6.2.        P2P Applications 486

20.6.3.        Pure Peer-to-Peer Applications: Gnutella 487

20.6.4.        Using Servers to Facilitate P2P Interactions 488

20.6.5.        Processor Utilization 489

20.6.6.        Facilitating Servers and P2P Applications 491

20.6.7.        The Future of P2P 492

21.    MODULEA MORE ON TCP AND IP 495

21.1. Introduction 495

21.2. General Issues 495

21.2.1.        Multiplexing 495

21.3. More on TCP 497

21.3.1.        Numbering Octets 497

21.3.2.        Ordering TCP Segments upon Arrival 499

21.3.3.        The TCP Acknowledgment Process 500

21.3.4.        Flow Control: Window Size 500

21.3.5.        TCP Fragmentation 501

21.3.6.        Bidirectional Communication 503

21.4. More on Internet Layer Standards 503

21.4.1.        Mask Operations 503

21.4.2.        IPv6 505

21.4.3.        IP Fragmentation 506

21.4.4.        Dynamic Routing Protocols 508

21.4.5.        Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 512

21.4.6.        Classful Addresses in IP 515

21.4.7.        Mobile IP 517

22.    MODULEB MORE ON MODULATION 521

22.1. Modulation 521

22.1.1.        Frequency Modulation 521

22.1.2.        Amplitude Modulation 521

22.1.3.        Phase Modulation 522

22.1.4.        Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) 523

23.    MODULEC TELEPHONE SERVICES 525

23.1. Introduction 525

23.2. PBX Services 525

23.3. Carrier Services and Pricing 526

23.3.1.        Basic Voice Services 526

23.3.2.        Advanced Services 528

24.    MODULED CRYPTOGRAPHIC PROCESSES 531

24.1. Introduction 531

24.2. Cryptographic Systems 531

24.2.1.        Phase 1: Negotiation of Security Parameters 531

24.2.2.        Phase 2: Mutual Authentication 532

24.2.3.        Phase 3: Key Exchange 532

24.2.4.        Phase 4: Ongoing Communication 532

24.3. Encryption for Confidentiality 533

24.3.1.        Terminology 533

24.3.2.        Symmetric Key Encryption 534

24.3.3.        Public Key Encryption 535

24.4. Authentication 538

24.4.1.        Applicant and Verifier 538

24.4.2.        Initial Authentication with MS-CHAP Challenge–Response Authentication 538

24.4.3.        Message-by-Message Authentication with Digital Signatures 540

24.5. Digital Certificates 542

24.5.1.        Certificate Authorities and Digital Certificates 543

24.5.2.        The Role of the Digital Certificate 543

24.5.3.        Checking the Certificate Revocation List (CRL) 544

24.5.4.        Public Key Infrastructures (PKIs) 544

24.6. Multilayer Security 543

 

Method of Instruction:

 

            Lectures, hands-on practice in lab, discussion, presentation, out of class programming assignments

 

Home and Lab Assignments

All assignments will be posted on WebCT http://spsu.view.usg.edu/. In some cases, lab exercises will be performed with a partner. However, students will be responsible for documenting lab exercise individually. Lab reports and home assignments will be due throughout the semester as assigned in class. All assignments are due precisely at the beginning of the class on the due date. If for some reason you have not been able to submit assignment by deadline, then you have 24 hours to submit your work with a 20% penalty. No reports will be accepted after that.

Grading Policy Your grade will be based upon:

Tests (3)

45%

Home & Labs Assignments

45%

Participation (not attendance)

10%

Your grading scale will be as follows:

Score ≥ 90

A

Score ≥ 80 & Score < 90

B

Score ≥ 70 & Score < 80

C

Score ≥ 60 & Score < 70

D

Score < 60

F